The founders of UNESCO believed that the rule of law, respect for human rights, and freedom of expression would be strengthened through international cooperation.
World Archaeology, 47 2 , — Search Article search Search. He has revised and co-authored all four dimensions of the online curriculum in Design for Sustainability and has organized and taught on Ecovillage Design Education programmes in Scotland, Thailand and Spain. We model the year coastal floodplain for each SLR scenario with the help of a planar elevation-based bathtub approach using the SRTM DEM, which is extensively used in large-scale flood modelling 60 , 61 , 62 , 70 , 72 , The world has warmed before, but never this quickly, and it is due in large part to human activities. Wessel, P.
The opening lines captured the spirit of its founders: "Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed. After an almost twenty-year absence from the organization, the United States rejoined the organization in October In announcing that the U.
This is apparent in the workings of many of its high-profile programmes, including World Heritage, which seeks to identify, protect and preserve outstanding cultural and natural sites. Encouraging conservation in the face of escalating industrialisation and destruction is surely positive — but how nations mobilise that call reveals a complex dilemma. On 6 November , floods ravaged Venice.
A perfect storm of high tides, rain-swollen rivers and a sirocco wind filled the Lagoon to bursting, sending a torrent of dirty water through the canals. Waters rose almost two metres above the usual fluctuations to which Venetians had become accustomed. Thousands of homes and livelihoods were ruined.
It was not simply a natural disaster: industrialisation, destruction of sandbanks and dredging the canals for large ships played a role. The agency co-ordinated these rescue efforts, launched public relations campaigns and sent experts to advise member states. Human influence was again the problem: oil tankers and enormous cruise ships, a new airport, the transformation of historic buildings and the massive scale of tourism impacted every aspect of Venetian life.
Their infrastructure developments would lead to further irreversible changes. The post-Cold War trend towards globalisation also brought an opportunity to reconsider national memories. Beck argued that national memories could be situated within a context of broader denationalised memories and come under increased scrutiny from a cosmopolitan perspective. Balkan also suggested that in the new global trend of restitution in national and international politics, writing history beyond nations was part of the effort to amend historical injustices.
Furthermore, Bluestein , p. Although Bluestein probably had something like a Truth Commission in mind, his remarks implied that MOW was largely in accord with the language of human rights that has emerged in the new political environment of the post-Cold War era.
According to Charlesworth , MOW has grown in the international human rights framework. The documents related to the massive violation of human rights entered the MOW Register, similar to incorporation of the sites of tragic memories and atrocity into the World Heritage List. Like the sites of slavery and mass killings added to the World Heritage List Logan and Reeves, , documents of human rights violations are considered to have great value for humanity in terms of their didactic influence.
MOW thus represents a pinnacle of the solidarist ambition to link memories and human rights in the age of globalisation. Backed by the notions of global memory and an emerging culture of universal human rights, UNESCO has expanded its MOW activities for the preservation of memories, which could become the basis for building a shared, collective future for humankind.
Its move is aligned with the international solidarist forces of the s that widened and deepened the normative scope of international society. By ensuring the authenticity and significance of documentary heritage, UNESCO exercises its authority to define what to remember from the past for future generations. The Documents consist of 11 sets of archives including films, photographs and texts. The heritage of massacre has two functions Tunbridge and Ashworth, , pp. First, it is a powerful and effective tool for unifying a nation and motivating the people to fight for a country. Second, it encourages non- involved observers to react to the nation favourably.
Both functions apply to the Documents of Nanjing Massacre. First, the Nanjing Massacre has an iconic and significant meaning and can unify Chinese nationals against an external enemy. Since the early s, China has strengthened the public memory of Chinese wartime suffering under Japanese military aggression. Second, by portraying the Nanjing massacre as a major historical issue, it is possible to position China as victim and Japan as perpetrator in the international community.
Regarding the massacre as equivalent to the Holocaust, some in China suggested that the site in Nanjing should be added to the World Heritage List Qian, The statement implies that any attempt to deny the scale of the massacre would henceforth be deemed illegitimate and comparable with Holocaust denial. Before its inscription, Japan made repeated attempts to encourage China to withdraw its nomination and asked the IAC to consider the political consequences, but in vain.
Although the governmental accusation of the specific case did not go any further, it was an unusually strong criticism from Japan, who had been a long-time supporter of UNESCO. The memory of the war, including the scale of the Nanjing Massacre and the validity of the Tokyo Tribunal, and the relative significance of the documents concerning wartime events, are highly contested in Japan Seraphim, Ikuhiko Hata , an eminent historian in a conservative group, concluded that some of the testimonies at the Nanking and Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal in were exaggerated: the death toll of civilians and surrendered soldiers in Nanjing was between 38, and 42,, much less than the Chinese estimate of , killed.
In opposition, Tokushi Kasahara , one of the most sympathetic historians towards the victims of Nanjing, estimates , to , as the number of casualties. According to Saito , pp. Their writings and activities have backfired and have triggered nationalistic reactions, which deny the Japanese past wrongdoings.
While there is a wide recognition that Japanese troops committed aggression in China, the scale of aggression should not be exaggerated and should not be considered the same as the Holocaust. Shinichi Kitaoka , p.
Japan also regards the ascendance of history issues as part of a power-political conflict in East Asia Gustafsson, ; Nakano, The constitutional posture of Japan has already been anchored in memories of wartime militarism Katzenstein, Japan has refrained from matching its military capability to its economic power, whereas China has built up its military capability in a relatively short period. When the Sino-Japanese territorial dispute over the East China Sea escalated during the s, both Japan and China accelerated their efforts to shape international public opinion in the arenas of the United Nations, the international media and in public symposia.
In this context, the inscription of the Documents of Nanjing Massacre into the MOW Register gave China another opportunity to publicise its own historical view, which emphasises Japanese atrocity. Although these nominations were not successful, they strongly alerted the Japanese government of the possibility of future inscription.
The focus of these efforts was on an increase in transparency and accountability, which Japan asserted as important for the legitimacy of the programme. What is at Stake? However, this inclusion brought about questions concerning the ways in which UNESCO carries out its programme of global documentary heritage. Their technical and professional expertise was limited and insufficient to give an authorised judgment of historical interpretations.
Those texts reflect the perspective of nominators who understand the significance of the documents. Despite the virtual separation between documents and historical interpretation, the nominated documents become heritage only when there are people who are able to and willing to engage in those documents as heritage. Like historians, nominators give a title and a meaning for collected materials to convince the examiners.
The controversy thus suggests that documents can produce even more contested political and historical debates than other types of heritage. MOW does not provide an opportunity for state parties to participate in the social and cultural process of making global documentary heritage for all humanity.
The consequence of the inclusion can be polarising and harmful. To mitigate the possibility of any more controversy, the direction that UNESCO has been undertaking so far appears procedural. The report made a wide range of recommendations, such as the introduction of a monitoring strategy and an increase in the transparency of decisions. The discussion is on-going, but an upcoming reform is expected to make it more difficult to inscribe the documents of controversial historical events.
To sustain the unity of humanity, albeit precarious, UNESCO must create a political, social and cultural space for dialogue between civilisations, cultures and peoples. Rather than creating a constructive arena for building a cosmopolitan memory, the programme has become an outpost in which state and non-state actors compete against each other over which records of the past should be chosen. MOW offers empirical proof that the lack of institutional mechanisms to manage the tensions between pluralism and solidarism can cause controversy, which belittles the solidarist mission.
The English School of International Relations is useful for understanding the wider implication of the controversy over MOW and its repercussions by offering a holistic theoretical perspective. This highlights an inherent tension between the solidarist forces of promoting a normative agenda of international society, on the one hand, and the pluralist pull of maintaining sovereignty and the principle of non-interference, on the other.
Editors: Duedahl, Poul (Ed.) The mission UNESCO, as defined just after the end of World War II, is to build 'the defenses of peace in the minds of men'. In this book, historians trace the routes of selected UNESCO mental engineering initiatives from its headquarters in Paris to the. A History of UNESCO: Global Actions and Impacts [Poul Duedahl] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The mission UNESCO, as defined just .
Does the current procedural reform in MOW mean a defeat of the attempt to pursue global documentary heritage? Not necessarily. Even if UNESCO has to give up its expert orientation to decide what counts as documentary heritage of world significance, there have been enormous efforts, particularly from civil society groups, to elevate the concern for human rights violations above the interests of partisan politics and to promote common global heritage.
The controversy over MOW is evidence of the necessity for new transnational narratives and more accommodating language without overly sacrificing historical accuracy. Contributors to International Journal of Heritage Studies, the flagship journal in heritage studies, specialise in a wide range of disciplines such as Geography, Anthropology and Archaeology, but it is rare to find contributing scholars in the fields of Political Sciences and International Relations.
The term of office of the 14 members of IAC is 4 years. Half of the membership is renewed every two years. References Akagawa, N. Archivo Nacional de Chile Memory of the World Register: Nomination form. The guild of nations. New York, NY: W. Beck, U. Bellamy, A. International society and its critics. Bertacchini, E.
Liuzza and Meskell, L. Public Choice 1 , 95— Bluestein, J. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brumann, C. Ethnic and Racial Studies 37 12 , — Buzan, B. From international to world Society?